Folia Medica 61(4): 491-499, doi: 10.3897/folmed.61.e47958
Can 3D Vision Improve Laparoscopic Performance in Box Simulation Training when Compared to Conventional 2D Vision?
expand article infoJohanna Österberg, Arestis Sokratous, Konstantinos Georgiou§, Lars Enochsson|
‡ Mora Hospital, Mora, Sweden§ National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece| Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden
Open Access

Introduction: Three-dimensional (3D) imaging systems have been introduced in laparoscopic surgery to facilitate binocular vision and dexterity to improve surgical performance and safety. Several studies have shown the benefits of 3D imaging in laparoscopy, but until now only a few studies have assessed the outcome by using objective variables. Box trainers are affordable alternatives to virtual laparoscopic surgical training, and the possibility of using real surgical instruments makes them more realistic to use. However, the data and feedback by a virtual simulator have not, until now, been able to assess. Simball Box®, equipped with G-coder sensors®, registers the instrument movements during training and gives the same feedback like a virtual simulator.

Aim: The aim of this study was to objectively evaluate the laparoscopic performance in 3D compared to conventional 2D vision by using a box simulation trainer.

Materials and methods: Thirty surgeons, residents and consultants, participated in the study. Eighteen had no, or minimal, laparoscopic experience (novices) whereas 12 were experts. They all performed three standard box training exercises (rope race, precision cutting, and basic suturing) in Simball Box. The participants were randomized and started with either 3D HD or traditional 2D HD cameras. The exercises were instructed and supervised. All instrument movements were registered. Variations in time, linear distance, average speed, and motion smoothness were analyzed.

Results: The parameters time, distance, speed, and motion smoothness were significantly better when the 3D camera was used.

Conclusion: All individuals of both subgroups achieved significantly higher speed and better motion smoothness when using 3D.

basic surgical skills, box training, 3D vision, 2D vision, laparoscopy, surgical simulation