Folia Medica 62(4): 762-768, doi: 10.3897/folmed.62.e50550
Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Hemophilic Joints: Correlations with the Bleeding Phenotype and Physical Examination
expand article infoNeofit Spasov, Diana Dimitrova-Popova, Nikoleta Traikova-Djambazova, Mariya Spasova, Miroslava Bosheva
‡ Medical University of Plovdiv, Plovdiv, Bulgaria
Open Access

Introduction: Blood-induced joint damage as a hallmark of haemophilia continues to occur despite the widespread prophylaxis. Pre-cise assessment and follow-up of joint status are crucial for tailoring their treatment. 

Aim: To study the correlation between the bleeding phenotype, the functional joint status, and the magnetic resonance imaging score in pediatric patients with haemophilia.

Materials and methods: Eighty-six joints (ankles, knees, and elbows) in patients aged 10.7±0.5 (range 4 - 20) years with severe/moderate haemophilia A, severe haemophilia B and haemophilia A with inhibitors were included in the study. The joints were assessed by Haemophilia Joint Health Score 2.1 (HJHS2.1) one month after the last hemarthrosis in a non-bleeding state. The magnetic reso-nance imaging was performed on 40 (46.5%) of the examined hemophilic joints (16 ankles, 11 knees and 13 elbows). 

Results: Joint bleeds were present in 37 (38.9%) of the joints with ankles being the most commonly affected. Sixty joints (69.8%) had normal HJHS2.1 score. Only the loss of flexion score differed significantly between the joints and the ankles had highest score. The cumulative number of hemarthrosis in the joint correlated moderately with hemosiderin deposition and strongly with the formation of subchondral cysts on magnetic resonance imaging. The magnetic resonance imaging scores for soft tissue and osteochondral domains correlated moderately with the cumulative number of hemarthrosis in the joint and only with the presence of pain and crepitus of mo-tion from the physical examination.

Conclusions: Magnetic resonance imaging is more sensitive than the bleeding phenotype and physical examination in detecting early signs of haemophilic arthropathy.

hemarthrosis, haemophilic joints, haemophilia joint health score, magnetic resonance imaging