Folia Medica 63(1): 113-121, doi: 10.3897/folmed.63.e52756
Antimicrobial properties, anti-virulence activities, and physico-mechanical characteristics of orthodontic adhesive containing C-phycocyanin: a promising application of natural products
expand article infoMaryam Pourhajibagher, Abbas Bahador
‡ Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Open Access

Introduction: Antimicrobial orthodontic adhesives aim to reduce enamel demineralization, white spot lesions, and incipient tooth decay around bonded orthodontic brackets, but they should not imperil its mechanical properties. 

Aim: To evaluate the antimicrobial and physico-mechanical properties of acrylic containing different concentrations of C-phycocyanin on Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Candida albicans.

Materials and methods: The mechanical properties of acrylic resins were measured by flexural strength test after preparation of acrylic resin samples with concentrations of 1%, 2%, 5%, 7.5%, and 10% of C-phycocyanin. Then we evaluated the antimicrobial effects of acrylic resin containing the maximum concentration of C-phycocyanin with clinically acceptable flexural strength and the changes in expression of virulence factors.

Results: The highest and lowest means of flexural strength were obtained in acrylic resins containing 0% and 10% concentrations of C-phycocyanin at 50.2±4.5 and 30.1±3.3 MPa, respectively. Adding 1%, 2%, and 5% of C-phycocyanin showed no significant decrease in flexural strength (p>0.05). The maximum mean diameter of the growth inhibition zone was observed around discs containing 5% of C-phycocyanin. Until day 30 of the study, no microbial biofilms were formed on any acrylic disc. Only microbial biofilms of C. albicans were able to form on discs containing 5% of C-phycocyanin at 90 days. 5% C-phycocyanin could significantly decrease the expression levels of gtfB, hsp16, and ALS9 6.1-, 7.3-, and 3.9-fold, respectively.

Conclusions: It can be concluded that the most acceptable concentration of C-phycocyanin in acrylic resin is 5% based on the results of flexural strength tests and antimicrobial activities of acrylic resin containing various concentrations of C-phycocyanin.

acrylic resins, antimicrobial activity, C-phycocyanin, flexural strength, gene expression