Folia Medica 63(2): 163-170, doi: 10.3897/folmed.63.e53709
Contemporary insight into diffuse axonal injury
expand article infoPolina Angelova, Ivo Kehayov§, Atanas Davarski§, Borislav Kitov§
‡ St George University Hospital, Plovdiv, Bulgaria§ Medical University of Plovdiv, Plovdiv, Bulgaria
Open Access
Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is present in approximately 50% of the cases with severe traumatic brain injury. It is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among children and young individuals worldwide. Generally, DAI occurs as a result of high-velocity accidents. Typically, it presents with loss of consciousness for at least 6 hours and neurological deficit dependent on the brain area that is affected by the injury. The final diagnosis is confirmed by neuroimaging studies such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. According to the injured brain site, DAI is classified into three grades: Grade I–DAI with axonal lesions in the cerebral hemispheres; Grade II–DAI with focal axonal lesions in the corpus callosum; Grade III–DAI with focal or multiple axonal lesions in the brainstem. Each of the three grades is associated with different outcome.
Due to the high disability and mortality rate, DAI represents an important medical, personal and social problem. The aim of the current review is to address the unsolved issues connected with the pathogenesis, diagnostics, treatment and outcome of the diffuse axonal injury.
CT, diffuse axonal injury, MRI, traumatic brain injury, treatment