Folia Medica 63(3): 348-354, doi: 10.3897/folmed.63.e55911
Initial experience in the field of pediatric percutaneous nephrolitholapaxia in Bulgaria
expand article infoEmil Dorosiev, Gabriela Minova, Teofil Pelov, Boris Mladenov
‡ UMHATEM "N.I. Pirogov", Sofia, Bulgaria
Open Access

Introduction: Pediatric urolithiasis is a very specific and challenging problem in the field of modern urology. Currently, there are three major methods for kidney stone removal: the extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), the retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS), and the percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL), the latter one proving to be an efficient and safe monotherapy of stones even with larger burden. Different sizes of nephroscopes are used (standard, mini, micro), where smaller size is logically correlated with safer profile, especially in pediatric population.

Aim: To analyze the initial experience in using PCNL in children for the treatment of kidney concrements – rates of successful stone removal and registered complications.

Materials and methods: Twenty-six PCNL procedures of 25 children were performed – both standard and mini. The age of
patients, size of the stones, operating time, changes in hemoglobin levels, duration of hospital stay, and the postoperative complications were recorded, analyzed and compared to data reported in current relevant literature.

Results: The mean age of patients was 9±5.2 years (15 boys and 10 girls). The average size of concrements subjected to nephrolitholapaxia was 16±0.7 mm, most of the cases being single stones. The average operative time was 150±33.4 min, and the average hospital stay was 4.1±1.5 days. The percentage of stone free children postoperatively was 94%. Complications included blood loss requiring transfusion in 1 patient (4%), postoperative urinary tract infection and fever (2 patients), and self-limiting hematuria in 16%.

Conclusions: PCNL is an effective and safe alternative in the management of nephrolithiasis in children. It is a method of choice for the treatment of concretions not suitable to treat with extracorporeal lithotripsy and after a qualitative selection of patients.

pediatric, percutaneous nephrolithotomy, urolithiasis